Table 4B(4). More Formatting of Insertion Targets by Mobile Genetic Elements

Effect on expression


Terminate transcription

(Shapiro and Adhya 1969; Starlinger and Saedler 1976; Hubner, Iida et al. 1987)

Provide enhancer function

(Errede, Company et al. 1985; Mellentin-Michelotti, John et al. 1994; McDonald, Matyunina et al. 1997; Conte, Dastugue et al. 2002; Bejerano, Lowe et al. 2006; Smith, Sanchez et al. 2008)

Insert splicing signals (intronization)

(Wessler, Baran et al. 1987; Wessler 1991; Varagona, Purugganan et al. 1992; Lev-Maor, Ram et al. 2008; Pastor, Talotti et al. 2009; Szczesniak, Ciomborowska et al. 2011)

Insert coding sequences (exonization)

(Nekrutenko and Li 2001; Krull, Brosius et al. 2005; Krull, Petrusma et al. 2007; Piriyapongsa, Polavarapu et al. 2007; Moller-Krull, Zemann et al. 2008; Pathak and Ali 2011; Schmitz and Brosius 2011)

Epigenetic formatting

(Englander and Howard 1995; Cantu, Vanzetti et al. 2010; Huda, Bowen et al. 2011; Conley and Jordan 2012; Sentmanat and Elgin 2012; Wang, Lunyak et al. 2012)

Epigenetic formatting – insulator element

(Conte, Dastugue et al. 2002; Lunyak, Prefontaine et al. 2007; Brasset, Hermant et al. 2010; Lunyak and Atallah 2011)




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