[ James A. Shapiro ] James A. Shapiro

Symbiosis, Infection and Stress


Stress Conditions


Plants, Rhizobacteria

Abiotic stress protection

(Dimkpa, Weinand et al. 2009)

Plants, mycorhiza and endophytic bacteria

Biotic and abiotic stress tolerances

(Selosse, Baudoin et al. 2004; Rodriguez and Redman 2008; Singh, Gill et al. 2011)

Various plants, Brome mosaic virus (BMV), Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Tobacco mosaic virus and Tobacco rattle virus

Increased drought tolerance following RNA virus infection

(Xu, Chen et al. 2008)

Glycine max, endophytic fungus Penicillium minioluteum

Saline stress protection

(Khan, Hamayun et al. 2011)

Rice,  endophytic fungus Paecilomyces formosus

Phytohormone production, abiotic stress growth promotion

(Waqas, Khan et al. 2012)

Medicago truncatula, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

Increased growth and disease resistance

(Liu, Maldonado-Mendoza et al. 2007)

Anopheles gambiae, Enterobacter and Wolbachia spp.

Plasmodium infection resistance increased by bacterial endosymbiont

(Kambris, Blagborough et al. 2010; Cirimotich, Dong et al. 2011; Hughes, Koga et al. 2011)

Aedes aegypti, Wolbachia sp

Resistance to Dengue virus, Chikungunya, and Plasmodium

(Moreira, Iturbe-Ormaetxe et al. 2009; Frentiu, Robinson et al. 2010; Hoffmann, Montgomery et al. 2011; Walker, Johnson et al. 2011)

Drosophila melanogaster, Wolbachia sp.

Resistance to RNA virus infection

(Hedges, Brownlie et al. 2008; Teixeira, Ferreira et al. 2008)

Drosophila neotestacea, Spiroplasma sp.

Spiroplasma protects against sterilization by parasitic nematode

(Jaenike, Unckless et al. 2010)

Aphids, phage APSE of Candidatus Hamiltonella defensa

Phage infection and presence of endosymbionts increases resistance to parasitoid wasps

(Oliver, Russell et al. 2003; Oliver, Moran et al. 2005; Degnan and Moran 2008; Degnan, Yu et al. 2009; Oliver, Degnan et al. 2009)

Coral reef cnidarians, pea aphids and cactuses

Endosymbionts provide thermotolerance

(Gilbert, McDonald et al. 2010)





Cirimotich, C. M., Y. Dong, et al. (2011). "Natural microbe-mediated refractoriness to Plasmodium infection in Anopheles gambiae." Science 332(6031): 855-858. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21566196.

Degnan, P. H. and N. A. Moran (2008). "Evolutionary genetics of a defensive facultative symbiont of insects: exchange of toxin-encoding bacteriophage." Mol Ecol 17(3): 916-929. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18179430.

Degnan, P. H., Y. Yu, et al. (2009). "Hamiltonella defensa, genome evolution of protective bacterial endosymbiont from pathogenic ancestors." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106(22): 9063-9068. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19451630.

Dimkpa, C., T. Weinand, et al. (2009). "Plant-rhizobacteria interactions alleviate abiotic stress conditions." Plant Cell Environ 32(12): 1682-1694. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19671096.

Frentiu, F. D., J. Robinson, et al. (2010). "Wolbachia-mediated resistance to dengue virus infection and death at the cellular level." PLoS One 5(10): e13398. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20976219.

Gilbert, S. F., E. McDonald, et al. (2010). "Symbiosis as a source of selectable epigenetic variation: taking the heat for the big guy." Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 365(1540): 671-678. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20083641.

Hedges, L. M., J. C. Brownlie, et al. (2008). "Wolbachia and virus protection in insects." Science 322(5902): 702. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18974344.

Hoffmann, A. A., B. L. Montgomery, et al. (2011). "Successful establishment of Wolbachia in Aedes populations to suppress dengue transmission." Nature 476(7361): 454-457. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21866160.

Hughes, G. L., R. Koga, et al. (2011). "Wolbachia infections are virulent and inhibit the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum in anopheles gambiae." PLoS Pathog 7(5): e1002043. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21625582.

Jaenike, J., R. Unckless, et al. (2010). "Adaptation via symbiosis: recent spread of a Drosophila defensive symbiont." Science 329(5988): 212-215. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20616278.

Kambris, Z., A. M. Blagborough, et al. (2010). "Wolbachia stimulates immune gene expression and inhibits plasmodium development in Anopheles gambiae." PLoS Pathog 6(10). http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20949079.

Khan, A. L., M. Hamayun, et al. (2011). "Salinity stress resistance offered by endophytic fungal interaction between Penicillium minioluteum LHL09 and glycine max. L." J Microbiol Biotechnol 21(9): 893-902. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21952365.

Liu, J., I. Maldonado-Mendoza, et al. (2007). "Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis is accompanied by local and systemic alterations in gene expression and an increase in disease resistance in the shoots." Plant J 50(3): 529-544. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17419842.

Moreira, L. A., I. Iturbe-Ormaetxe, et al. (2009). "A Wolbachia symbiont in Aedes aegypti limits infection with dengue, Chikungunya, and Plasmodium." Cell 139(7): 1268-1278. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20064373.

Oliver, K. M., P. H. Degnan, et al. (2009). "Bacteriophages encode factors required for protection in a symbiotic mutualism." Science 325(5943): 992-994. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19696350.

Oliver, K. M., N. A. Moran, et al. (2005). "Variation in resistance to parasitism in aphids is due to symbionts not host genotype." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102(36): 12795-12800. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16120675.

Oliver, K. M., J. A. Russell, et al. (2003). "Facultative bacterial symbionts in aphids confer resistance to parasitic wasps." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100(4): 1803-1807. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12563031.

Rodriguez, R. and R. Redman (2008). "More than 400 million years of evolution and some plants still can't make it on their own: plant stress tolerance via fungal symbiosis." J Exp Bot 59(5): 1109-1114. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18267941.

Selosse, M. A., E. Baudoin, et al. (2004). "Symbiotic microorganisms, a key for ecological success and protection of plants." C R Biol 327(7): 639-648. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15344814.

Singh, L. P., S. S. Gill, et al. (2011). "Unraveling the role of fungal symbionts in plant abiotic stress tolerance." Plant Signal Behav 6(2): 175-191. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21512319.

Teixeira, L., A. Ferreira, et al. (2008). "The bacterial symbiont Wolbachia induces resistance to RNA viral infections in Drosophila melanogaster." PLoS Biol 6(12): e2. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19222304.

Walker, T., P. H. Johnson, et al. (2011). "The wMel Wolbachia strain blocks dengue and invades caged Aedes aegypti populations." Nature 476(7361): 450-453. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21866159.

Waqas, M., A. L. Khan, et al. (2012). "Endophytic Fungi Produce Gibberellins and Indoleacetic Acid and Promotes Host-Plant Growth during Stress." Molecules 17(9): 10754-10773. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22960869.

Xu, P., F. Chen, et al. (2008). "Virus infection improves drought tolerance." New Phytol 180(4): 911-921. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18823313.