These are included to assist the non-specialist reader in finding independent discussions of the topics raised in this book. Most articles are taken from Scientific American post-1948 issues, which have recently been made available online as a consequence of the magazine’s purchase by Nature Publishing Group. The majority of the articles cited may not directly address points made in the text, but they are included because they provide important context and background. Many of the more recent articles explicitly or implicitly exemplify the contemporary cognitive and informatic perspective advocated in the book. For specialized terms that are unfamiliar, the reader is advised to consult Wikipedia.


Scientific American articles can be accessed from the archive at

• Stephen J. Gould’s articles on evolution are available at


• Complete works of Darwin available at .




The traditional perspective:

• UC Berkeley Museum Paleontology website, History of Evolutionary Thought ( )

Origin of Species, Chapter 4 (


Maupertuis, a Forgotten Genius H. Bentley Glass

Scientific American 193, 100-111 (October 1955) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1055-100


The Origin of Darwinism C. D. Darlington

Scientific American 200, 60-66 (May 1959) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0559-60


Evolution  Ernst Mayr

Scientific American 239, 46-55 (September 1978) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0978-46


The Neutral Theory of Molecular Evolution  Motoo Kimura

Scientific American 241, 98-126 (November 1979) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1179-98


· The Lunar Society of Birmingham Lord Ritchie-Calder

Scientific American 246, 136-145 (June 1982) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0682-136


The Evolution of Darwinism G. Ledyard Stebbins, Francisco J. Ayala

Scientific American 253, 72-82 (July 1985) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0785-72


Archaeopteryx  Peter Wellnhofer

Scientific American 262, 70-77 (May 1990) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0590-70


The Genes of Men and Molds  George W. Beadle

Scientific American 179, 30-39 (September 1948) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0948-30


The Genetic Basis of Evolution Theodosius Dobzhansky

Scientific American 182, 32-41 (January 1950) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0150-32


Genetics  Theodosius Dobzhansky

Scientific American 183, 55-58 (September 1950) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0950-55


Evolution Observed  Francis J. Ryan

Scientific American 189, 78-82 (October 1953) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1053-78


The Structure of the Hereditary Material  F. H. C. Crick

Scientific American 191, 54-61 (October 1954) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1054-54


Information Transfer in the Living Cell  George Gamow

Scientific American 193, 70-78 (October 1955) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1055-70


The Gene  Norman H. Horowitz

Scientific American 195, 78-91 (October 1956) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1056-78


Nucleic Acids  F. H. C. Crick

Scientific American 197, 188-203 (September 1957) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0957-188


How do Genes Act?  Vernon M. Ingram

Scientific American 198, 68-74 (January 1958) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0158-68


Innovation in Biology  George Wald

Scientific American 199, 100-115 (September 1958) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0958-100


The Genetic Code  F. H. C. Crick

Scientific American 207, 66-77 (October 1962) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1062-66


Ionizing Radiation and Evolution  James F. Crow

Scientific American 201, 138-160 (September 1959) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0959-138


The Genetic Code: II Marshall W. Nirenberg

Scientific American 208, 80-95 (March 1963) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0363-80


The Genetic Code: III  F. H. C. Crick

Scientific American 215, 55-62 (October 1966) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1066-55


·  Evolution  Ernst Mayr

Scientific American 239, 46-55 (September 1978) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0978-46


The Evolution of Multicellular Plants and Animals James W. Valentine

Scientific American 239, 140-158 (September 1978) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0978-140


An Early Habitat of Life  David I. Groves, John S. R. Dunlop, Roger Buick

Scientific American 245, 64-73 (October 1981) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1081-64


The Molecular Basis of Evolution  Allan C. Wilson

Scientific American 253, 164-173 (October 1985) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1085-164


The Emergence of Animals  Mark A. S. McMenamin

Scientific American 256, 94-102 (April 1987) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0487-94


From Atoms to Traits  David M. Kingsley

Scientific American 300, 52-59 (January 2009) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0109-52


Evolution Encoded Stephen J. Freeland, Laurence D. Hurst

Scientific American 290, 84-91 (April 2004) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0404-84


Human Evolution:


What Will Become of Homo Sapiens?  Peter Ward

Scientific American 300, 68-73 (January 2009) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0109-68


Sculpting the Brain  Claus C. Hilgetag, Helen Barbas

Scientific American 300, 66-71 (February 2009) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0209-66


Nothing Special  John Rennie

Scientific American 300, 8-9 (April 2009) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0409-8


The Evolution of Primate Color Vision  Gerald H. Jacobs, Jeremy Nathans

Scientific American 300, 56-63 (April 2009) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0409-56


Taming the Urge to War  John Horgan

Scientific American 300, 16-17 (May 2009) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0509-16


What Makes Us Human?  Katherine S. Pollard

Scientific American 300, 44-49 (May 2009) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0509-44


The Taming of the Cat  Carlos A. Driscoll, Juliet Clutton-Brock, Andrew C. Kitchener, Stephen J. O'Brien

Scientific American 300, 68-75 (June 2009) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0609-68


Origins of the Left & Right Brain  Peter F. MacNeilage, Lesley J. Rogers, Giorgio Vallortigara

Scientific American 301, 60-67 (July 2009) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0709-60


Twilight of the Neandertals  Kate Wong

Scientific American 301, 32-37 (August 2009) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0809-32


Origin of the Mind  Marc Hauser

Scientific American 301, 44-51 (September 2009) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0909-44


Rethinking the Hobbits of Indonesia  Kate Wong

Scientific American 301, 66-73 (November 2009) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1109-66


The Naked Truth  Nina G. Jablonski

Scientific American 302, 42-49 (February 2010) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0210-42


Human Uniqueness and the Future  Lawrence M. Krauss

Scientific American 302, 36-36 (May 2010) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0510-36


Fossils of Our Family  Kate Wong

Scientific American 302, 12-14 (June 2010) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0610-12


Our Inner Neandertal  Kate Wong

Scientific American 303, 18-20 (July 2010) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0710-18


Our Neandertal Brethren Michael Shermer

Scientific American 303, 34-34 (August 2010) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0810-34


When the Sea Saved Humanity Curtis W. Marean

Scientific American 303, 54-61 (August 2010) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0810-54


How We Are Evolving  Jonathan K. Pritchard

Scientific American 303, 40-47 (October 2010) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1010-40 Feature


Heredity outside the genome:

Partner of the Genes  T. M. Sonneborn

Scientific American 183, 30-39 (November 1950) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1150-30 /scientificamerican/journal/v183/n5/pdf/scientificamerican1150-30.pdf


Prions  Stanley B. Prusiner

Scientific American 251, 50-59 (October 1984) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1084-50



New conceptual approaches:

Cybernetics Norbert Wiener

Scientific American 179, 14-19 (November 1948) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1148-14


How Cells Respond to Stress  William J. Welch

Scientific American 268, 56-64 (May 1993) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0593-56


Shapiro, J.A. 1997. A third way (alternative to Darwinism & Creationism). Boston Review 22 (1), 32-33. ( )


Swarm Smarts  Eric Bonabeau, Guy Théraulaz

Scientific American 282, 72-79 (March 2000) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0300-72


Swarm Smarts  Eric Bonabeau, Guy Théraulaz

Scientific American 18, 40-47 (February 2008) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0208-40sp


Protein-Based Computers  Robert R. Birge

Scientific American 272, 90-95 (March 1995) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0395-90


 Computing with Molecules  Mark A. Reed, James M. Tour

Scientific American 282, 86-93 (June 2000) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0600-86


Cybernetic Cells  W. Wayt Gibbs

Scientific American 285, 52-57 (August 2001) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0801-52


 Engineering Life: Building a FAB for Biology  David Baker, George Church, Jim Collins, Drew Endy, Joseph Jacobson, Jay Keasling, Paul Modrich, Christina Smolke, Ron Weiss  Scientific American 294, 44-51 (June 2006) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0606-44

Machine Self-awareness  Larry Greenemeier

Scientific American 302, 44-45 (June 2010) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0610-44




• How E. Coli Chooses The Best Sugar To Eat.

Viruses and Genes  François Jacob, Elie L. Wollman

Scientific American 204, 92-110 (June 1961) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0661-92


The Control of Biochemical Reactions  Jean-Pierre Changeux

Scientific American 212, 36-45 (April 1965) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0465-36

(Allosteric interactions)

Protein Shape and Biological Control  Daniel E. Koshland

Scientific American 229, 52-64 (October 1973) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1073-52

(Allosteric interactions)

Genetic Repressors  Mark Ptashne, Walter Gilbert

Scientific American 222, 36-44 (June 1970) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0670-36


“Second Messengers” in the Brain  James A. Nathanson, Paul Greengard

Scientific American 237, 108-119 (August 1977) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0877-108


The Cycling of Calcium as an Intracellular Messenger  Howard Rasmussen

Scientific American 261, 66-73 (October 1989) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1089-66


Biological Roles of Nitric Oxide  Solomon H. Snyder, David S. Bredt

Scientific American 266, 68-77 (May 1992) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0592-68



• Proofreading DNA Replication.

The High Fidelity of DNA Duplication  Miroslav Radman, Robert Wagner

Scientific American 259, 40-46 (August 1988) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0888-40


Fuzzy Logic  Bart Kosko, Satoru Isaka

Scientific American 269, 76-81 (July 1993) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0793-76


• DNA Damage Repair And Mutagenesis.

Ionizing Radiation and the Living Cell  Alexander Hollaender, George E. Stapleton

Scientific American 201, 94-100 (September 1959) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0959-94


Ultraviolet Radiation and Nucleic Acid  R. A. Deering

Scientific American 207, 135-145 (December 1962) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1262-135


The Repair of DNA  Philip C. Hanawalt, Robert H. Haynes

Scientific American 216, 36-43 (February 1967) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0267-36


Bacterial Tests for Potential Carcinogens  Raymond Devoret

Scientific American 241, 40-49 (August 1979) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0879-40


Inducible Repair of DNA  Paul Howard-Flanders

Scientific American 245, 72-80 (November 1981) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1181-72


Sunlight and Skin Cancer  David J. Leffell, Douglas E. Brash

Scientific American 275, 52-59 (July 1996) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0796-52



• Cell Cycle Checkpoints.


What Controls the Cell Cycle  Andrew W. Murray, Marc W. Kirschner

Scientific American 264, 56-63 (March 1991) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0391-56


     Robert A. Weinberg

Scientific American 275, 62-70 (September 1996) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0996-62


• From The Cell Surface To The Genome.


How Cells Receive Stimuli  William H. Miller, Floyd Ratliff, H. K. Hartline

Scientific American 205, 222-239 (September 1961) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0961-222


Pheromones  Edward O. Wilson

Scientific American 208, 100-114 (May 1963) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0563-100


Sex Differences in Cells  Ursula Mittwoch

Scientific American 209, 54-63 (July 1963) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0763-54


How Slime Molds Communicate  John Tyler Bonner

Scientific American 209, 84-93 (August 1963) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0863-84


The Molecular Basis of Communication within the Cell  Michael J. Berridge

Scientific American 253, 142-152 (October 1985) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1085-142


Cell Communication: The Inside Story  John D. Scott, Tony Pawson

Scientific American 282, 72-79 (June 2000) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0600-72




• The Role Of Intercellular Signals In The Cell Death Decision.


How Cancer Arises  Robert A. Weinberg

Scientific American 275, 62-70 (September 1996) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0996-62


Cell Suicide in Health and Disease  Richard C. Duke, David M. Ojcius, John Ding-E Young Scientific American 275, 80-87 (December 1996) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1296-80




Revisiting the Central Dogma of Molecular Biology.

Crick F: Central dogma of molecular biology. Nature 1970, 227:561-563.  


Collective Computation in Neuronlike Circuits  David W. Tank, John J. Hopfield

Scientific American 257, 104-114 (December 1987) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1287-104


Scale-Free Networks  Albert-László Barabási, Eric Bonabeau

Scientific American 288, 60-69 (May 2003) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0503-60


At the Edge of Life's Code  Thania Benios

Scientific American 298, 106-109 (April 2008) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0408-106

 (Chris Wiggins and computational modeling of cell responses)





• Genome Formatting For Properly Accessing Stored Information.


Transcription, translation and other cell process videos

A DNA Operator-Repressor System  Tom Maniatis, Mark Ptashne

Scientific American 234, 64-76 (January 1976) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0176-64


A Genetic Switch in a Bacterial Virus  Mark Ptashne, Alexander D. Johnson, Carl O. Pabo

Scientific American 247, 128-141 (November 1982) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1182-128


Split Genes Pierre Chambon

Scientific American 244, 60-71 (May 1981) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0581-60


Light Switches for Plant Genes  Phyllis B. Moses, Nam-Hai Chua

Scientific American 258, 88-93 (April 1988) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0488-88


How Gene Activators Work  Mark Ptashne

Scientific American 260, 40-47 (January 1989) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0189-40


Smart Genes  Tim Beardsley

Scientific American 265, 86-95 (August 1991) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0891-86


Molecular Machines that Control Genes  Robert Tjian

Scientific American 272, 54-61 (February 1995) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0295-54


The Alternative Genome  Gil Ast

Scientific American 292, 58-65 (April 2005) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0405-58

 (multiple proteins from a single genetic locus)


The Power of Riboswitches  Jeffrey E. Barrick, Ronald R. Breaker

Scientific American 296, 50-57 (January 2007) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0107-50


Natalie Angier: Scientists and Philosophers Find That ‘Gene’ Has a Multitude of Meanings. NYTimes. November 11, 2008.

Nicholas Wade. From One Genome, Many Types of Cells. But How? NYT February 24, 2009,

The Price of Silent Mutations  J. V. Chamary, Laurence D. Hurst

Scientific American 300, 46-53 (June 2009) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0609-46


Nuclear Architecture  Melinda Wenner

Scientific American 301, 20-22 (October 2009) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1009-20

 (importance of nuclear localization)

The Inner Life of the Genome  Tom Misteli  Scientific American 304, 66-73 (18 January 2011) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0211-66 (nuclear organization)


• Genome Compaction, Chromatin Formatting And Epigenetic Regulation.

How do Cells Differentiate?  C. H. Waddington

Scientific American 189, 108-116 (September 1953) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0953-108


Experiments in Acquired Characteristics  C. H. Waddington

Scientific American 189, 92-99 (December 1953) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1253-92


Chromosomal Proteins and Gene Regulation  Gary S. Stein, Janet Swinehart Stein, Lewis J. Kleinsmith Scientific American 232, 46-60 (February 1975) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0275-46

The Nucleosome Roger D. Kornberg, Aaron Klug

Scientific American 244, 52-64 (February 1981) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0281-52


A Different Kind of Inheritance  Robin Holliday

Scientific American 260, 60-73 (June 1989) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0689-60


Parental Imprinting of Genes  Carmen Sapienza

Scientific American 263, 52-60 (October 1990) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1090-52


Histones as Regulators of Genes  Michael Grunstein

Scientific American 267, 68-74 (October 1992) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1092-68


Censors of the Genome  Nelson C. Lau, David P. Bartel

Scientific American 289, 34-41 (August 2003) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0803-34


The Hidden Genetic Program of Complex Organisms  John S. Mattick

Scientific American 291, 60-67 (October 2004) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1004-60

 (regulatory RNAs)

The Unseen Genome: Beyond DNA  W. Wayt Gibbs

Scientific American 289, 106-113 (December 2003) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1203-106


David Shenk. 7/23/2009. How Genes Really Work. The Atlantic. (epigenetics commentary)


• Genome Formatting For Replication And Transmission To Daughter Cells.

Mitosis videos:

Cell Division  Daniel Mazia

Scientific American 189, 53-63 (August 1953) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0853-53


The Cell Cycle  Daniel Mazia

Scientific American 230, 54-64 (January 1974) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0174-54 Article


· How Cells Divide  Daniel Mazia

Scientific American 205, 100-121 (September 1961) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0961-100


Artificial Chromosomes  Andrew W. Murray, Jack W. Szostak

Scientific American 257, 62-68 (November 1987) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1187-62


The Mitotic Spindle  J. Richard McIntosh, Kent L. McDonald

Scientific American 261, 48-56 (October 1989) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1089-48


The Human Telomere  Robert K. Moyzis

Scientific American 265, 48-55 (August 1991) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0891-48


The Centrosome  David M. Glover, Cayetano Gonzalez, Jordan W. Raff

Scientific American 268, 62-68 (June 1993) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0693-62


Telomeres, Telomerase and Cancer  Carol W. Greider, Elizabeth H. Blackburn

Scientific American 274, 92-97 (February 1996) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0296-92


• Distinct Classes Of DNA In The Genome.

Repeated Segments of DNA  Roy J. Britten, David E. Kohne

Scientific American 222, 24-31 (April 1970) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0470-24


DNA Microsatellites: Agents of Evolution?  E. Richard Moxon, Christopher Wills

Scientific American 280, 94-99 (January 1999) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0199-94


Olivia Judson blog:

The Unseen Genome: Gems among the Junk  W. Wayt Gibbs

Scientific American 289, 46-53 (November 2003) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1103-46

 (importance of “non-coding” DNA)


• The Molecular Mechanisms Of Natural Genetic Engineering.

A Versatile Virus  Karl Maramorosch

Scientific American 188, 78-86 (June 1953) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0653-78

– virus multiplies in plant and in insect vector

Friendly Viruses  Karl Maramorosch

Scientific American 203, 138-144 (August 1960) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0860-138


The Life Cycle of a Virus  André Lwoff

Scientific American 190, 34-37 (March 1954) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0354-34


How Viruses Insert their DNA into the DNA of the Host Cell  Allan M. Campbell

Scientific American 235, 102-113 (December 1976) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1276-102


RNA-Directed DNA Synthesis Howard M. Temin

Scientific American 226, 24-33 (January 1972) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0172-24


Transposable Genetic Elements  Stanley N. Cohen, James A. Shapiro

Scientific American 242, 40-49 (February 1980) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0280-40


How an Animal Virus Gets into and out of its Host Cell  Kai Simons, Henrik Garoff, Ari Helenius Scientific American 246, 58-66 (February 1982) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0282-58


Transposable Genetic Elements in Maize  Nina V. Fedoroff

Scientific American 250, 84-99 (June 1984) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0684-84


Reverse Transcription  Harold Varmus

Scientific American 257, 56-64 (September 1987) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0987-56


Are Viruses Alive?  Luis P. Villarreal

Scientific American 291, 100-105 (December 2004) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1204-100


The Real Life of Pseudogenes  Mark Gerstein, Deyou Zheng

Scientific American 295, 48-55 (August 2006) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0806-48


Ancient Gene, New Tricks  Christine Soares

Scientific American 299, 24-26 (July 2008) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0708-24

 (resurrected transposon as transgenic vector)


• Natural Genetic Engineering As Part Of The Normal Life-Cycle.

How the Trypanosome Changes its Coat  John E. Donelson, Mervyn J. Turner

Scientific American 252, 44-51 (February 1985) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0285-44


Genetic Recombination Franklin W. Stahl

Scientific American 256, 90-101 (February 1987) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0287-90


Ciliate macronucleus development:

Olivia Judson blog on genome change:Unorthodox” (ciliates)

ScienceDaily (May 21, 2009) 'Junk' DNA Has Important Role, Researchers Find. 


Developmental, Cell and Molecular Biology of the Adaptive Immune System:

How Antibodies are Made  Sir Macfarlane Burnet

Scientific American 191, 74-78 (November 1954) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1154-74


The Specificity of Antibodies  S. J. Singer

Scientific American 197, 99-107 (October 1957) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1057-99


The Mechanism of Immunity  Sir Macfarlane Burnet

Scientific American 204, 58-67 (January 1961) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0161-58


The Thymus Gland  Sir Macfarlane Burnet

Scientific American 207, 50-57 (November 1962) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1162-50


How Cells Attack Antigens  Robert S. Speirs

Scientific American 210, 58-64 (February 1964) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0264-58


How Cells Make Antibodies  G. J. V. Nossal

Scientific American 211, 106-115 (December 1964) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1264-106


The Structure of Antibodies  R. R. Porter

Scientific American 217, 81-90 (October 1967) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1067-81


The Structure and Function of Antibodies  Gerald M. Edelman

Scientific American 223, 34-42 (August 1970) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0870-34


The Immune System  Niels Kaj Jerne

Scientific American 229, 52-60 (July 1973) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0773-52


The Complement System  Manfred M. Mayer

Scientific American 229, 54-66 (November 1973) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1173-54


The Development of the Immune System  Max D. Cooper, Alexander R. Lawton

Scientific American 231, 58-72 (November 1974) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1174-58


The Antibody Combining Site  J. Donald Capra, Allen B. Edmundson

Scientific American 236, 50-59 (January 1977) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0177-50


Monoclonal Antibodies  Cesar Milstein

Scientific American 243, 66-75 (October 1980) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1080-66


The Genetics of Antibody Diversity  Philip Leder

Scientific American 246, 102-115 (May 1982) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0582-102


The Molecules of the Immune System  Susumu Tonegawa

Scientific American 253, 122-131 (October 1985) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1085-122


The T Cell and its Receptor  Philippa Marrack, John Kappler

Scientific American 254, 36-45 (February 1986) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0286-36


Anti-Idiotypes and Immunity  Ronald C. Kennedy, Joseph L. Melnick, Gordon R. Dreesman

Scientific American 255, 48-56 (July 1986) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0786-48


The Clonal-Selection Theory  Gordon L. Ada, Sir Gustav Nossal

Scientific American 257, 62-69 (August 1987) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0887-62


Catalytic Antibodies  Richard A. Lerner, Alfonso Tramontano

Scientific American 258, 58-70 (March 1988) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0388-58


How T Cells see Antigen  Howard M. Grey, Alessandro Sette, Søren Buus

Scientific American 261, 56-64 (November 1989) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1189-56


Life, Death and the Immune System Gustav J. V. Nossal

Scientific American 269, 52-62 (September 1993) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0993-52


How the Immune System Develops  Irving L. Weissman, Max D. Cooper

Scientific American 269, 64-71 (September 1993) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0993-64


Sharks and the Origins of Vertebrate Immunity  Gary W. Litman

Scientific American 275, 67-71 (November 1996) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1196-67


Immunity and the Invertebrates  Gregory Beck, Gail S. Habicht

Scientific American 275, 60-66 (November 1996) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1196-60


The Long Arm of the Immune System  Jacques Banchereau

Scientific American 287, 52-59 (November 2002) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1102-52


Immunity's Early-Warning System  Luke A. J. O'Neill

Scientific American 292, 38-45 (January 2005) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0105-38


Peacekeepers of the Immune System  Zoltan Fehervari, Shimon Sakaguchi

Scientific American 295, 56-63 (October 2006) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1006-56



• Cellular Regulation Of Natural Genetic Engineering.

Hungry to Evolve?  John Rennie

Scientific American 261, 20-22 (November 1989) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1189-20b

 (Adaptive mutation)

DNA's New Twists  John Rennie

Scientific American 266, 122-132 (March 1993) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0393-122


Evolution Encoded  Stephen J. Freeland, Laurence D. Hurst

Scientific American 290, 84-91 (April 2004) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0404-84

 (stress-stimulated genome change)





• Antibiotic Resistance And Horizontal DNA Transfer.

Sexuality in Bacteria Elie L. Wollman, François Jacob

Scientific American 195, 109-118 (July 1956) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0756-109


Transformed Bacteria Rollin D. Hotchkiss, Esther Weiss

Scientific American 195, 48-53 (November 1956) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1156-48


“Transduction” in Bacteria  Norton D. Zinder

Scientific American 199, 38-43 (November 1958) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1158-38


Antibiotics and the Genetic Code  Luigi Gorini

Scientific American 214, 102-109 (April 1966) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0466-102


Infectious Drug Resistance  Tsutomu Watanabe

Scientific American 217, 19-27 (December 1967) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1267-19


Cellular Factors in Genetic Transformation  Alexander Tomasz

Scientific American 220, 38-44 (January 1969) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0169-38


The Molecule of Infectious Drug Resistance  Royston C. Clowes

Scientific American 228, 18-27 (April 1973) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0473-18


Plasmids  Richard P. Novick

Scientific American 243, 102-127 (December 1980) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1280-102


The Beta-Lactam Antibiotics  E. P. Abraham

Scientific American 244, 76-86 (June 1981) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0681-76


A Vector for Introducing New Genes into Plants  Mary-Dell Chilton

Scientific American 248, 50-59 (June 1983) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0683-50


Trans-Kingdom Sex  J.H.

Scientific American 261, 34-35 (October 1989) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1089-34


Bacterial Gene Swapping in Nature  Robert V. Miller

Scientific American 278, 66-71 (January 1998) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0198-66


The Challenge of Antibiotic Resistance  Stuart B. Levy

Scientific American 278, 46-53 (March 1998) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0398-46


Uprooting the Tree of Life  W. Ford Doolittle

Scientific American 282, 90-95 (February 2000) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0200-90


David Biello. November 21, 2005. Gene Swapping Helps Bacteria Adapt. Scientific American.

New Tactics Against Tuberculosis  Clifton E. Barry III, Maija S. Cheung

Scientific American 300, 62-69 (March 2009) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0309-62


Olivia Judson blog on horizontal transfer:

Bob Holmes. Augusr 31, 2009. Dangerous Liasons. New Scientist. – horizontal transfer by hybridization


• The Modular And Duplicative Nature Of Protein Evolution.

POU! Goes the Homeobox  John Benditt

Scientific American 260, 20-22 (February 1989) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0289-20


Evolutionarily Mobile Modules in Proteins Russell F. Doolittle, Peer Bork

Scientific American 269, 50-56 (October 1993) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1093-50


Molecular Zippers in Gene Regulation  Steven Lanier McKnight

Scientific American 264, 54-64 (April 1991) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0491-54



• Nucleic Acid Sequencing, Molecular Taxonomy And The Discovery Of A New Cell Type.

The Nucleotide Sequence of a Nucleic Acid  Robert W. Holley

Scientific American 214, 30-39 (February 1966) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0266-30


Archaebacteria  Carl R. Woese

Scientific American 244, 98-122 (June 1981) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0681-98


The Ribosome James A. Lake

Scientific American 245, 84-97 (August 1981) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0881-84


· Reconstructing Bird Phylogeny by Comparing DNA's  Charles G. Sibley, Jon E. Ahlquist

Scientific American 254, 82-92 (February 1986) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0286-82


Deciphering the Code of Life  Francis S. Collins, Karin G. Jegalian

Scientific American 281, 86-91 (December 1999) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1299-86


Lean Gene Machine  Steven Ashley

Scientific American 293, 26-28 (December 2005) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1205-26

 (Pelagibacter streamlined genome)

Sequencing Sea World  Christina Reed

Scientific American 295, 23-24 (August 2006) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0806-23



Cell Evolution: Mutalism, Parasitism, Pathogenesis, Endosymbiosis, Bacterial Multicellularity, Symbiogenesis And The Origin Of Eukaryotic Cells.

Powerhouse of the Cell  Philip Siekevitz

Scientific American 197, 131-144 (July 1957) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0757-131


Biological Oxidation  David E. Green

Scientific American 199, 56-62 (July 1958) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0758-56


Insects and Plant Galls  William Hovanitz

Scientific American 201, 151-162 (November 1959) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1159-151


Lichens  I. Mackenzie Lamb

Scientific American 201, 144-156 (October 1959) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1059-144


The Fungi of Lichens  Vernon Ahmadjian

Scientific American 208, 122-133 (February 1963) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0263-122


The Mitochondrion  David E. Green

Scientific American 210, 63-74 (January 1964) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0164-63


Genes Outside the Chromosomes  Ruth Sager

Scientific American 212, 70-79 (January 1965) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0165-70


The Blue-Green Algae  Patrick Echlin

Scientific American 214, 74-81 (June 1966) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0666-74


The Fungus Gardens of Insects  Suzanne W. T. Batra, Lekh R. Batra

Scientific American 217, 112-120 (November 1967) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1167-112


The Membrane of the Mitochondrion  Efraim Racker

Scientific American 218, 32-39 (February 1968) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0268-32


Plants without Cellulose  R. D. Preston

Scientific American 218, 102-108 (June 1968) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0668-102


The Genetic Activity of Mitochondria and Chloroplasts  Ursula W. Goodenough, R. P. Levine Scientific American 223, 22-29 (November 1970) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1170-22

Symbiosis and Evolution  Lynn Margulis

Scientific American 225, 48-57 (August 1971) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0871-48


Giant Clams  C. M. Yonge

Scientific American 232, 96-105 (April 1975) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0475-96

 (algal symbionts)

The Program of Fertilization  David Epel

Scientific American 237, 128-138 (November 1977) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1177-128


Mitochondrial DNA Leslie A. Grivell

Scientific American 248, 78-89 (March 1983) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0383-78


The Oldest Eukaryotic Cells  Gonzalo Vidal

Scientific American 250, 48-57 (February 1984) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0284-48


Parasites that Change the Behavior of their Host  Janice Moore

Scientific American 250, 108-115 (May 1984) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0584-108


The First Organisms  A. G. Cairns-Smith

Scientific American 252, 90-100 (June 1985) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0685-90


Symbiosis in the Deep Sea  James J. Childress, Horst Felbeck, George N. Somero

Scientific American 256, 115-120 (May 1987) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0587-114


Bacteria as Multicellular Organisms  James A. Shapiro

Scientific American 258, 82-89 (June 1988) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0688-82


How Plants Make Oxygen  Govindjee, William J. Coleman

Scientific American 262, 50-58 (February 1990) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0290-50


Seed Dispersal by Ants  Steven N. Handel, Andrew J. Beattie

Scientific American 263, 76-83A (August 1990) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0890-76


Proofreading Genes  John Rennie

Scientific American 264, 28-32 (May 1991) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0591-28


Living Together  John Rennie

Scientific American 266, 122-133 (January 1992) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0192-122


Singing Caterpillars, Ants and Symbiosis  Philip J. DeVries

Scientific American 267, 76-82 (October 1992) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1092-76


How Parasitic Wasps Find their Hosts  James H. Tumlinson, W. Joe Lewis, Louise E. M. Vet Scientific American 266, 100-106 (March 1993) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0393-100


Sex, Death and Kefir  Lynn Margulis

Scientific American 271, 96-96 (August 1994) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0894-96


Red Tides  Donald M. Anderson

Scientific American 271, 62-68 (August 1994) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0894-62


Disarming Lyme Disease  Fred S. Kantor

Scientific American 271, 34-39 (September 1994) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0994-34


Caulerpa  William P. Jacobs

Scientific American 271, 100-105 (December 1994) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1294-100

 (large single-celled alga)

Hookworm Infection  Peter J. Hotez, David I. Pritchard

Scientific American 272, 68-74 (June 1995) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0695-68


The Bacteria Behind Ulcers  Martin J. Blaser

Scientific American 274, 104-107 (February 1996) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0296-104


The Birth of Complex Cells  Christian de Duve

Scientific American 274, 50-57 (April 1996) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0496-50


Why and How Bacteria Communicate  Richard Losick, Dale Kaiser

Scientific American 276, 68-73 (February 1997) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0297-68


Extremophiles  Michael T. Madigan, Barry L. Marrs

Scientific American 276, 82-87 (April 1997) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0497-82


Mitochondrial DNA in Aging and Disease  Douglas C. Wallace

Scientific American 277, 40-47 (August 1997) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0897-40


The Parasitic Wasp's Secret Weapon  Nancy E. Beckage

Scientific American 277, 82-87 (November 1997) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1197-82


The Lurking Perils of Pfiesteria  JoAnn M. Burkholder

Scientific American 281, 42-49 (August 1999) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0899-42


Kate Wong. September 12, 2000. Photosynthesis's Purple Roots. Sci. Amer.

Species-Making Bacteria  Alison McCook

Scientific American 284, 29-29 (April 2001) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0401-29b


The Bromeliads of the Atlantic Forest  Gustavo Martinelli

Scientific American 282, 86-93 (March 2000) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0300-86

 (epiphyte pictures)

Battling Biofilms  J. W. Costerton, Philip S. Stewart

Scientific American 285, 74-81 (July 2001) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0701-74


Parasitic Sex Puppeteers  Laurence D. Hurst, James P. Randerson

Scientific American 286, 56-61 (April 2002) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0402-56


Rachael Moeller. 6/19/2002. New Theory of Cell Evolution Rejects Single-Ancestor Doctrine. Sci. Amer.

Bugs in the Brain  Robert Sapolsky

Scientific American 288, 94-97 (March 2003) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0303-94


Talking Bacteria  Marguerite Holloway

Scientific American 290, 34-35 (February 2004) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0204-34

 (quorum signals)

An Endangered Species in the Stomach  Martin J. Blaser

Scientific American 292, 38-45 (February 2005) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0205-38

 (Helicobacter benefits to host)

Can Chlamydia Be Stopped?  David M. Ojcius, Toni Darville, Patrik M Bavoil

Scientific American 292, 72-79 (May 2005) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0505-72


Blue-Green Acres  Patrick Di Justo

Scientific American 293, 22-24 (September 2005) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0905-22


Bugs and Drugs  Gunjan Sinha

Scientific American 293, 29-31 (November 2005) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1105-29

 (influence of intestinal flora on drug efficacy)

Tackling Malaria  Claire Panosian Dunavan

Scientific American 293, 76-83 (December 2005) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1205-76


Methane, Plants and Climate Change  Frank Keppler, Thomas Röckmann

Scientific American 296, 52-57 (February 2007) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0207-52


Fighting Killer Worms  Patrick Skelly

Scientific American 298, 94-99 (May 2008) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0508-94


Going with His Gut Bacteria  Melinda Wenner

Scientific American 299, 90-92 (July 2008) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0708-90


Expanding the Limits of Life  Alexander S. Bradley

Scientific American 301, 62-67 (December 2009) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1209-62

 (deep sea vent ecosystems based on chemical energy rather than sunlight)

The Art of Bacterial Warfare  B. Brett Finlay

Scientific American 302, 56-63 (February 2010) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0210-56


Fertilization in Mammals  Paul M. Wassarman

Scientific American 259, 78-84 (December 1988) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1288-78


Genetics in the Gut  Katherine Harmon

Scientific American 302, 22-24 (May 2010) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0510-22


Olivia Judson blog. (DNA transfer to nucleus from mitochondria and chloroplasts)

Amoeba endocytosis videos


• Natural Genetic Engineering And Genomic Innovation.

Molecular Mechanisms of Photosynthesis  Douglas C. Youvan, Barry L. Marrs

Scientific American 256, 42-48 (June 1987) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0687-42


Photosynthesis  Davide Castelvecchi

Scientific American 301, 89-89 (September 2009) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0909-89b


How We Are Evolving Jonathan K. Pritchard

Scientific American 303, 40-47 (October 2010) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1010-40


SJ Gould 1977. The return of hopeful monsters. Natural History 86 (June/July): 22-30

Michael R. Dietrich. Richard Goldschmidt: hopeful monsters and other 'heresies' Nature Reviews Genetics 4, 68-74 (January 2003)

Olivia Judson blogs on genome change in evolution:


• Use And Reuse Of Evolutionary Inventions.

Basic biology of morphogenesis and multicellular development:

“The Organizer”  George W. Gray

Scientific American 197, 79-91 (November 1957) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1157-79


The Indestructible Hydra  N. J. Berrill

Scientific American 197, 118-125 (December 1957) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1257-118


The Flowering Process  Frank B. Salisbury

Scientific American 198, 108-117 (April 1958) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0458-108


The Regeneration of Body Parts  Marcus Singer

Scientific American 199, 79-90 (October 1958) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1058-79


Metamorphosis, Polymorphism, Differentiation  V. B. Wigglesworth

Scientific American 200, 100-110 (February 1959) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0259-100


The Embryological Origin of Muscle  Irwin R. Konigsberg

Scientific American 211, 61-66 (August 1964) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0864-61


How a Tadpole Becomes a Frog  William Etkin

Scientific American 214, 76-88 (May 1966) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0566-76


The Control of Plant Growth  Johannes van Overbeek

Scientific American 219, 75-81 (July 1968) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0768-75


Transdetermination in Cells  Ernst Hadorn

Scientific American 219, 110-120 (November 1968) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1168-110


Transplanted Nuclei and Cell Differentiation  J. B. Gurdon

Scientific American 219, 24-35 (December 1968) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1268-24


Wound Healing  Russell Ross

Scientific American 220, 40-50 (June 1969) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0669-40


Hydra as a Model for the Development of Biological Form  Alfred Gierer

Scientific American 231, 44-54 (December 1974) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1274-44


Biological Regeneration and Pattern Formation  Peter J. Bryant, Susan V. Bryant, Vernon French 

Scientific American 237, 66-81 (July 1977) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0777-66

The Compound Eye of Insects  G. Adrian Horridge

Scientific American 237, 108-120 (July 1977) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0777-108


The Shaping of Tissues in Embryos  Richard Gordon, Antone G. Jacobson

Scientific American 238, 106-113 (June 1978) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0678-106


The Evolution of Multicellular Plants and Animals  James W. Valentine

Scientific American 239, 140-158 (September 1978) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0978-140


Pattern Formation in Biological Development Lewis Wolpert

Scientific American 239, 154-164 (October 1978) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1078-154


Compartments in Animal Development  Antonio García-Bellido, Peter A. Lawrence, Gines Morata  Scientific American 241, 102-111 (July 1979) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0779-102

The Development of a Simple Nervous System  Gunther S. Stent, David A. Weisblat

Scientific American 246, 136-146 (January 1982) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0182-136


The Regeneration of Potato Plants from Leaf-Cell Protoplasts  James F. Shepard

Scientific American 246, 154-166 (May 1982) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0582-154


The Emergence of Animals  Mark A. S. McMenamin

Scientific American 256, 94-102 (April 1987) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0487-94


The Stem Cell  David W. Golde

Scientific American 265, 86-93 (December 1991) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1291-86


Making Sense of Taste  David V. Smith, Robert F. Margolskee

Scientific American 284, 32-39 (March 2001) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0301-32


The Molecular Logic Of Smell  Richard Axel

Scientific American 295, 68-75 (September 2006) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0906-68sp


Selfless Giving  Gary Stix

Scientific American 296, 20-22 (April 2007) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0407-20

 (maternal effects on embryonic development)

Your Cells Are My Cells  J. Lee Nelson

Scientific American 298, 72-79 (February 2008) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0208-72

 (maternal cell contributions to embryo and adult)

This Old Body  Neil H. Shubin

Scientific American 300, 64-67 (January 2009) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0109-64


Molecular biology of animal and plant development:

Gene Transplantation and the Analysis of Development  E. M. De Robertis, J. B. Gurdon

Scientific American 241, 74-82 (December 1979) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1279-74


The Molecular Basis of Development  Walter J. Gehring

Scientific American 253, 152-162 (October 1985) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1085-152


Homeobox Genes and the Vertebrate Body Plan Eddy M. De Robertis, Guillermo Oliver, Christopher V. E. Wright

Scientific American 263, 46-52 (July 1990) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0790-46


The Molecular Architects of Body Design  William McGinnis, Michael Kuziora

Scientific American 270, 58-66 (February 1994) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0294-58


The Genetics of Flower Development  Elliot M. Meyerowitz

Scientific American 271, 56-65 (November 1994) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1194-56


Gradients That Organize Embryo Development  Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard

Scientific American 275, 54-61 (August 1996) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0896-54


How the Body Tells Left from Right  Juan Carlos Izpisúa Belmonte

Scientific American 280, 46-51 (June 1999) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0699-46


· How Limbs Develop  Robert D. Riddle, Clifford J. Tabin

Scientific American 280, 74-79 (February 1999) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0299-74


The Hidden Genetic Program of Complex Organisms  John S. Mattick

Scientific American 291, 60-67 (October 2004) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1004-60

 (regulatory RNAs)

Evo Devo Is the New Buzzword ...

Scientific American 292, 102-104 (April 2005) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0405-102


Regulating Evolution  Sean B. Carroll, Benjamin Prud'homme, Nicolas Gompel

Scientific American 298, 60-67 (May 2008) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0508-60 (EvoDevo)



Evolutionary combinatorics and reuse:

Old Gene, New Trick  John Rennie

Scientific American 261, 30-31 (December 1989) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1289-30b

 (Engrailed conserved but used for different functions in invertebrates, vertebrates)

G Proteins  Maurine E. Under, Alfred G. Gilman

Scientific American 267, 56-65 (July 1992) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0792-56


Engineering Life: Building a FAB for Biology  David Baker, George Church, Jim Collins, Drew Endy, Joseph Jacobson, Jay Keasling, Paul Modrich, Christina Smolke, Ron Weiss

Scientific American 294, 44-51 (June 2006) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0606-44

 (synthetic biology)

New Jobs for Ancient Chaperones  Pramod K. Srivastava

Scientific American 299, 50-55 (July 2008) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0708-50


The Evolution of Life on Earth  Stephen Jay Gould

Scientific American 14, 92-100 (March 2004) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0304-92sp


• Whole Genome Doubling At Critical Stages Of Evolutionary Innovation And Divergence.


Cataclysmic Evolution G. Ledyard Stebbins

Scientific American 184, 54-59 (April 1951) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0451-54


Triticale  Joseph H. Hulse, David Spurgeon

Scientific American 231, 72-80 (August 1974) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0874-72








• Reorganizing Established Functions To Generate Novelty (see Part III).


Jacob F: Evolution and tinkering. Science 1977, 196:1161-1166.



• The Implications Of Targeting Genome Restructuring.

Shapiro JA. 2007. Bacteria are small but not stupid: cognition, natural genetic engineering and socio-bacteriology. Stud. Hist. Phil. Biol. & Biomed. Sci. 38 (2007) 807–819.


• Can Genomic Changes Be Linked To Ecological Disruptions?

The Evolution of Ecological Systems  Robert M. May

Scientific American 239, 160-175 (September 1978) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0978-160


On the Termination of Species  W. Wayt Gibbs

Scientific American 285, 40-49 (November 2001) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1101-40


Biogeochemical influences of evolution on the environment:

The Energy Cycle of the Biosphere  George M. Woodwell

Scientific American 223, 64-74 (September 1970) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0970-64


The Water Cycle  H. L. Penman

Scientific American 223, 98-108 (September 1970) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0970-98


The Oxygen Cycle  Preston Cloud, Aharon Gibor

Scientific American 223, 110-123 (September 1970) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0970-110


The Carbon Cycle  Bert Bolin

Scientific American 223, 124-132 (September 1970) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0970-124


The Nitrogen Cycle  C. C. Delwiche

Scientific American 223, 136-146 (September 1970) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0970-136


Mineral Cycles  Edward S. Deevey

Scientific American 223, 148-158 (September 1970) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0970-148


The Nutrient Cycles of an Ecosystem  F. Herbert Bormann, Gene E. Likens

Scientific American 223, 92-101 (October 1970) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1070-92


The Evolution of Reefs  Norman D. Newell

Scientific American 226, 54-65 (June 1972) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0672-54


Nitrogen Fixation  David R. Safrany

Scientific American 231, 64-80 (October 1974) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1074-64


Biological Nitrogen Fixation  Winston J. Brill

Scientific American 236, 68-81 (March 1977) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0377-68


Microbial Life in the Deep Sea  Holger W. Jannasch, Carl O. Wirsen

Scientific American 236, 42-52 (June 1977) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0677-42


The Biosphere  Preston Cloud

Scientific American 249, 176-189 (September 1983) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0983-176


Microbes Deep Inside the Earth  James K. Fredrickson, Tullis C. Onstott

Scientific American 275, 68-73 (October 1996) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1096-68


The Cells That Rule the Seas  Steve Nadis

Scientific American 289, 52-53 (December 2003) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1203-52

When Methane Made Climate  James F. Kasting

Scientific American 291, 78-85 (July 2004) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0704-78



Paleontological record and mass extinctions:

The Evolution of the Earliest Cells  J. William Schopf

Scientific American 239, 110-138 (September 1978) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0978-110


Pre-Cambrian Animals  Martin F. Glaessner

Scientific American 204, 72-78 (March 1961) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0361-72


The Animals of the Burgess Shale  Simon Conway Morris, H. B. Whittington

Scientific American 241, 122-135 (July 1979) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0779-122


The Mass Extinctions of the Late Mesozoic  Dale A. Russell

Scientific American 246, 58-65 (January 1982) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0182-58


The Extinction of the Ammonites  Peter Ward

Scientific American 249, 136-147 (October 1983) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1083-136


Mass Extinctions in the Ocean  Steven M. Stanley

Scientific American 250, 64-72 (June 1984) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0684-64


An Extraterrestrial Impact  Walter Alvarez, Frank Asaro

Scientific American 263, 78-84 (October 1990) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1090-78


A Volcanic Eruption  Vincent E. Courtillot

Scientific American 263, 85-92 (October 1990) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1090-85


End of the Proterozoic Eon  Andrew H. Knoll

Scientific American 265, 64-73 (October 1991) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1091-64


The Big Bang of Animal Evolution  Jeffrey S. Levinton
Scientific American
267, 84-91 (November 1992) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1192-84


Cambrian Jolt  Tim Beardsley

Scientific American 267, 40-42 (December 1992) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1292-40

 (mass extinctions)


The Mid-Cretaceous Superplume Episode  Roger L. Larson

Scientific American 15, 22-27 (July 2005) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0705-22sp


The Mother of Mass Extinctions  Douglas H. Erwin

Scientific American 275, 72-78 (July 1996) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0796-72


 Questioning the Oldest Signs of Life  Sarah Simpson

Scientific American 288, 70-77 (April 2003) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0403-70


 Expanding the Limits of Life  Alexander S. Bradley

Scientific American 301, 62-67 (December 2009) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1209-62



• What Might A 21st Century Theory Of Evolution Look Like?

Evolution Evolving  Tim Beardsley

Scientific American 277, 15-18 (September 1997) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0997-15


• Where Does Evolution Fit In 21st Century Science?


Genes, Peoples and Languages  Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza

Scientific American 265, 104-110 (November 1991) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1191-104


Genetic Algorithms  John H. Holland

Scientific American 267, 66-72 (July 1992) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0792-66


Creative Evolution  W. Wayt Gibbs

Scientific American 269, 20-21 (October 1993) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1093-20


 The New Social Darwinists  John Horgan

Scientific American 273, 174-181 (October 1995) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1095-174


Darwin's Influence on Modern Thought  Ernst Mayr

Scientific American 283, 78-83 (July 2000) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0700-78


Evolving Inventions  John R. Koza, Martin A. Keane, Matthew J. Streeter

Scientific American 288, 52-59 (February 2003) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0203-52

 (in silico evolution)

Chain Letters and Evolutionary Histories  Charles H. Bennett, Ming Li, Bin Ma

Scientific American 288, 76-81 (June 2003) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0603-76


Evolution in the Everyday World  David P. Mindell

Scientific American 300, 82-89 (January 2009) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0109-82


Evolution of Minerals  Robert M. Hazen

Scientific American 302, 58-65 (March 2010) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0310-58

Molecular Biology background readings in chronological order:

The Structure of Protein Molecules  Linus Pauling, Robert B. Corey, Roger Hayward

Scientific American 191, 51-59 (July 1954) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0754-51


Proteins  Paul Doty

Scientific American 197, 173-187 (September 1957) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0957-173


The Duplication of Chromosomes  J. Herbert Taylor

Scientific American 198, 36-42 (June 1958) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0658-36


Nucleic Acids and Proteins  Mahlon B. Hoagland

Scientific American 201, 55-61 (December 1959) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1259-55


Collagen  Jerome Gross

Scientific American 204, 120-134 (May 1961) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0561-120


How Cells Make Molecules  Vincent G. Allfrey, Alfred E. Mirsky

Scientific American 205, 74-82 (September 1961) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0961-74


The Fine Structure of the Gene  Seymour Benzer

Scientific American 206, 70-84 (January 1962) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0162-70


Messenger RNA  Jerard Hurwitz, J. J. Furth

Scientific American 206, 41-49 (February 1962) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0262-41


Single-Stranded DNA Robert L. Sinsheimer

Scientific American 207, 109-117 (July 1962) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0762-109


The Structure of Viruses  R. W. Horne

Scientific American 208, 48-57 (January 1963) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0163-48


Polyribosomes  Alexander Rich

Scientific American 209, 44-53 (December 1963) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1263-44


Hybrid Nucleic Acids  S. Spiegelman

Scientific American 210, 48-56 (May 1964) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0564-48


The Genetic Code of a Virus Heinz Fraenkel-Conrat

Scientific American 211, 46-54 (October 1964) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1064-4


The Genetics of a Bacterial Virus  R. S. Edgar, R. H. Epstein

Scientific American 212, 70-79 (February 1965) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0265-70


The Bacterial Chromosome  John Cairns

Scientific American 214, 36-44 (January 1966) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0166-36


The Genetic Control of the Shape of a Virus  Edouard Kellenberger

Scientific American 215, 32-39 (December 1966) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1266-32


Gene Structure and Protein Structure  Charles Yanofsky

Scientific American 216, 80-94 (May 1967) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0567-80


The Synthesis of DNA Arthur Kornberg

Scientific American 219, 64-78 (October 1968) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1068-64


The Three-dimensional Structure of Transfer RNA Alexander Rich, Sung Hou Kim

Scientific American 238, 52-62 (January 1978) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0178-52


Supercoiled DNA William R. Bauer, F. H. C. Crick, James H. White

Scientific American 243, 118-133 (July 1980) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0780-118


DNA Topoisomerases James C. Wang

Scientific American 247, 94-109 (July 1982) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0782-94


The DNA Helix and How it is Read Richard E. Dickerson

Scientific American 249, 94-111 (December 1983) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1283-94


The Structure of Proteins in Biological Membranes Nigel Unwin, Richard Henderson

Scientific American 250, 78-94 (February 1984) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0284-78


The Molecules of Life Robert A. Weinberg

Scientific American 253, 48-57 (October 1985) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1085-48


DNA Gary Felsenfeld

Scientific American 253, 58-67 (October 1985) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1085-58


RNA as an Enzyme Thomas R. Cech

Scientific American 255, 64-75 (November 1986) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1186-64


The Structure of Poliovirus  James M. Hogle, Marie Chow, David J. Filman

Scientific American 256, 42-49 (March 1987) doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0387-42