[ James A. Shapiro ] James A. Shapiro

Life history events that alter the epigenome
(DNA methylation, chromatin formatting and siRNAs)

Event (Organism)



Plant stress

Epigenetic changes. methylation and chromatin modification; siRNA alterations

(Jones-Rhoades and Bartel 2004; Madlung and Comai 2004; Lukens and Zhan 2007; Chinnusamy and Zhu 2009; Jaskiewicz, Conrath et al. 2011; Grativol, Hemerly et al. 2012)

Temperature and UV-B stress (Arabidopsis)

Transgenerational loss of epigenetic silencing

(Lang-Mladek, Popova et al. 2010)

Viral infection, UV-C (Arabidopsis, Nicotiana)

Transgenerational recombination increases; enhanced genome methylation; require DNA methylase & Dicer-like proteins

(Boyko, Blevins et al. 2010)

Salt stress (rice, Oryza sativa)

DNA methylation changes

(Karan, Deleon et al. 2012)

Heavy metal stress (rice, Oryza sativa)

Transgenerational CHG hypomethylation, altered chromatin reformatting activities

(Ou, Zhang et al. 2012)

Heavy metal stress (Arabidopsis)

Transgenerational tolerance

(Rahavi, Migicovsky et al. 2011)

Herbivory (butterflies) and jasmonate (Arabidopsis)

Transgenerational resistance dependent on siRNA functions

(Rasmann, De Vos et al. 2012)

Chemical induction of herbivore and pathogen defenses, jasmonate and nutrient stress (Dandelion Taraxacum officinale)

Transgenerational methylation and growth phenotype changes, stress tolerance

(Verhoeven, Jansen et al. 2010; Verhoeven and van Gurp 2012)

Polyploidy (plants)

Histone acetylation changes

 (Chen and Tian 2007)

Allopolyploids (Brassica napus)

Cytosine methylation

(Lukens, Pires et al. 2006)

Allopolyploidy (wheat)

Transgenerational changes in methylation patterns of mobile elements and altered transcription profiles

 (Dong, Liu et al. 2005; Yaakov and Kashkush 2011; Yaakov and Kashkush 2011; Qi, Huang et al. 2012)

Synthetic allotetraploids (Arabidopsis)

Remodeling of DNA methylation, phenotypic and transcriptional changes


 (Madlung, Masuelli et al. 2002; Ha, Lu et al. 2009)

Allotetraploidy (Asteraceae)



(Buggs, Doust et al. 2009)

Hybridization and genome doubling (Asteraceae)

Nonadditive methylation changes


(Hegarty, Batstone et al. 2011)

Hybridization (Arabidopsis)

Trans-methylation (epimutation)

(Greaves, Groszmann et al. 2012)

Interspecific hybridization (Arabidopsis)


Loss of parental imprinting (silencing)

(Josefsson, Dilkes et al. 2006)

Hybridization (wheat)

Small RNA deregulation

(Kenan-Eichler, Leshkowitz et al. 2011)

Interspecific hybrids (plants)

Altered DNA methylation patterns; Phenotypic and epigenetic variability; changes in siRNA

 (Salmon, Ainouche et al. 2005; Marfil, Camadro et al. 2009; Groszmann, Greaves et al. 2011)

Introgression from Zizania latifolia into rice

Extensive alterations in DNA methylation

 (Liu, Wang et al. 2004)

Incompatible cross-pollination (rice)

Transgenerational epigenetic instability.

 (Wang, Chai et al. 2009)

Tissue culture growth

Altered mPing transposon cytosine methylation

(Ngezahayo, Xu et al. 2009)

Tobacco tissue culture

Gradual and frequent epigenetic reprogramming of invertedly repeated transgene epialleles

(Krizova, Fojtova et al. 2009)

Immortalized Arabidopsis cell suspension culture

Euchromatin DNA hypermethylation and DNA hypomethylation of specific transposable elements

(Tanurdzic, Vaughn et al. 2008)

Antibiotics and tissue culture (tobacco)

Genome-wide hypermethylation

 (Schmitt, Oakeley et al. 1997)

Rice plants subjected to space flight

Heritable hypermethylation of TEs and other sequences

 (Ou, Long et al. 2009)

Interspecific hybrids (mouse)

Placental DNA methylation changes

 (Schutt, Florl et al. 2003)

Interspecific hybrid (mouse)

Methylation perturbations in retroelements

 (Brown, Golden et al. 2008)

Interspecific hybrids (Peromyscus mice)

Genomic imprinting disrupted

 (Vrana, Guan et al. 1998)

Interspecific hybrids (Wallabies)

Loss of retroelement methylation

(O'Neill, O'Neill et al. 1998)

X irradiation

Transgenerational cancers and modifications in DNA methylation

 (Koturbash, Baker et al. 2006)

Particulate air pollution (Mouse)

DNA global hypermethylation

 (Yauk, Polyzos et al. 2008)

Nutrition (mouse)

Retrotransposon methylation in response to dietary methionine

 (Waterland and Jirtle 2003)

Wolbachia endosymbiosis in Drosophila males

Sperm chromatin remodeling; cytoplasmic incompatibility

 (Harris and Braig 2003)

Wolbachia endosymbiosis in leafhopper (Zyginidia pullula) males

Feminization, sterility, female-specific DNA methylation patterns

 (Negri, Franchini et al. 2009)

Bacterial infection (human)

Histone modifications and chromatin remodeling (particularly immune cells)

 (Arbibe 2008; Hamon and Cossart 2008)

Bacterial infection (mice)

DNA hypermethylation

(Bobetsis, Barros et al. 2007)

Flock House virus expression (C. elegans)

Transgenerational viRNA viral silencing

(Rechavi, Minevich et al. 2011)

Virus infection (tobacco)

Transgenerational methylation changes

 (Boyko, Kathiria et al. 2007)

Stress adaptation (Arabidopsis)

Transgenerational methylation

(Boyko and Kovalchuk 2008; Boyko, Blevins et al. 2010; Boyko and Kovalchuk 2010)

Epstein-Barr virus infection

Hypermethylation in EBV(+) gastric cancer

(Kaneda, Matsusaka et al. 2012)

Cytomegalovirus infection (human)

Methylation capacity

(Esteki-Zadeh, Karimi et al. 2012)

Nutrition (pigs, rats)

Transgenerational methylation, transcription and growth changes

(Burdge, Hoile et al. 2011; Braunschweig, Jagannathan et al. 2012)

Endocrine disrupter vinclozolin (rat)

Transgenerational disruption of male gonad development, male imprinting, pregnancy and transmission of anxiety

(Anway, Leathers et al. 2006; Anway and Skinner 2006; Chang, Anway et al. 2006; Anway and Skinner 2008; Nilsson, Anway et al. 2008; Skinner, Anway et al. 2008; Guerrero-Bosagna and Skinner 2009; Crews, Gillette et al. 2012)

Pesticides, plasticizers, jet fuel, dioxin (rat)

Transgenerational disruption of sexual development and gametogensis

(Manikkam, Guerrero-Bosagna et al. 2012; Nilsson, Larsen et al. 2012)

Pentylenetetrazole (Drosophila)

Transgenerational spermatogenic transmission of CNS expression changes

(Sharma and Singh 2009)

Bacterial infection

Histone modification and chromatin remodeling

(Hamon and Cossart 2008)

Helicobacter infection (human)

LINE-1 hypomethylation

 (Yamamoto, Toyota et al. 2008)

Helicobacter infection (human)

Aberrant or hypermethylation of CpG islands

 (Maekita, Nakazawa et al. 2006; Nardone, Compare et al. 2007; Nardone and Compare 2008; Moriichi, Watari et al. 2009; Nakajima, Yamashita et al. 2009; Hong, Oh et al. 2010; Yoshida, Yamashita et al. 2011)

Campylobacter rectus infection of the placenta (human)

DNA methylation and histone modification changes

(Minarovits 2009)





Anway, M. D., C. Leathers, et al. (2006). "Endocrine disruptor vinclozolin induced epigenetic transgenerational adult-onset disease." Endocrinology 147(12): 5515-5523. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16973726.

Anway, M. D. and M. K. Skinner (2006). "Epigenetic transgenerational actions of endocrine disruptors." Endocrinology 147(6 Suppl): S43-49. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16690803.

Anway, M. D. and M. K. Skinner (2008). "Transgenerational effects of the endocrine disruptor vinclozolin on the prostate transcriptome and adult onset disease." Prostate 68(5): 517-529. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18220299.

Arbibe, L. (2008). "Immune subversion by chromatin manipulation: a 'new face' of host-bacterial pathogen interaction." Cell Microbiol 10(8): 1582-1590. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18485116.

Bobetsis, Y. A., S. P. Barros, et al. (2007). "Bacterial infection promotes DNA hypermethylation." J Dent Res 86(2): 169-174. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17251518.

Boyko, A., T. Blevins, et al. (2010). "Transgenerational adaptation of Arabidopsis to stress requires DNA methylation and the function of Dicer-like proteins." PLoS One 5(3): e9514. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20209086.

Boyko, A., P. Kathiria, et al. (2007). "Transgenerational changes in the genome stability and methylation in pathogen-infected plants: (virus-induced plant genome instability)." Nucleic Acids Res 35(5): 1714-1725. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17311811.

Boyko, A. and I. Kovalchuk (2008). "Epigenetic control of plant stress response." Environ Mol Mutagen 49(1): 61-72. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17948278.

Boyko, A. and I. Kovalchuk (2010). "Transgenerational response to stress in Arabidopsis thaliana." Plant Signal Behav 5(8). http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20724818.

Braunschweig, M., V. Jagannathan, et al. (2012). "Investigations on transgenerational epigenetic response down the male line in F2 pigs." PLoS One 7(2): e30583. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22359544.

Brown, J. D., D. Golden, et al. (2008). "Methylation perturbations in retroelements within the genome of a Mus interspecific hybrid correlate with double minute chromosome formation." Genomics 91(3): 267-273. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18226492.

Buggs, R. J., A. N. Doust, et al. (2009). "Gene loss and silencing in Tragopogon miscellus (Asteraceae): comparison of natural and synthetic allotetraploids." Heredity 103(1): 73-81. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19277058.

Burdge, G. C., S. P. Hoile, et al. (2011). "Progressive, transgenerational changes in offspring phenotype and epigenotype following nutritional transition." PLoS One 6(11): e28282. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22140567.

Chang, H. S., M. D. Anway, et al. (2006). "Transgenerational epigenetic imprinting of the male germline by endocrine disruptor exposure during gonadal sex determination." Endocrinology 147(12): 5524-5541. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16973722.

Chen, Z. J. and L. Tian (2007). "Roles of dynamic and reversible histone acetylation in plant development and polyploidy." Biochim Biophys Acta 1769(5-6): 295-307. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17556080.

Chinnusamy, V. and J. K. Zhu (2009). "Epigenetic regulation of stress responses in plants." Curr Opin Plant Biol 12(2): 133-139. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19179104.

Crews, D., R. Gillette, et al. (2012). "Epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of altered stress responses." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109(23): 9143-9148. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22615374.

Dong, Y. Z., Z. L. Liu, et al. (2005). "Allopolyploidy in wheat induces rapid and heritable alterations in DNA methylation patterns of cellular genes and mobile elements." Genetika 41(8): 1089-1095. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16161630.

Esteki-Zadeh, A., M. Karimi, et al. (2012). "Human cytomegalovirus infection is sensitive to the host cell DNA methylation state and alters global DNA methylation capacity." Epigenetics 7(6): 585-593. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22595877.

Grativol, C., A. S. Hemerly, et al. (2012). "Genetic and epigenetic regulation of stress responses in natural plant populations." Biochim Biophys Acta 1819(2): 176-185. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21914492.

Greaves, I. K., M. Groszmann, et al. (2012). "Trans chromosomal methylation in Arabidopsis hybrids." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109(9): 3570-3575. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22331882.

Groszmann, M., I. K. Greaves, et al. (2011). "Changes in 24-nt siRNA levels in Arabidopsis hybrids suggest an epigenetic contribution to hybrid vigor." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108(6): 2617-2622. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21266545.

Guerrero-Bosagna, C. M. and M. K. Skinner (2009). "Epigenetic transgenerational effects of endocrine disruptors on male reproduction." Semin Reprod Med 27(5): 403-408. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19711250.

Ha, M., J. Lu, et al. (2009). "Small RNAs serve as a genetic buffer against genomic shock in Arabidopsis interspecific hybrids and allopolyploids." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106(42): 17835-17840. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19805056.

Hamon, M. A. and P. Cossart (2008). "Histone modifications and chromatin remodeling during bacterial infections." Cell Host Microbe 4(2): 100-109. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18692770.

Harris, H. L. and H. R. Braig (2003). "Sperm chromatin remodelling and Wolbachia-induced cytoplasmic incompatibility in Drosophila." Biochem Cell Biol 81(3): 229-240. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12897857.

Hegarty, M. J., T. Batstone, et al. (2011). "Nonadditive changes to cytosine methylation as a consequence of hybridization and genome duplication in Senecio (Asteraceae)." Mol Ecol 20(1): 105-113. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21073590.

Hong, S. J., J. H. Oh, et al. (2010). "The overmethylated genes in Helicobacter pylori-infected gastric mucosa are demethylated in gastric cancers." BMC Gastroenterol 10: 137. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21092120.

Jaskiewicz, M., U. Conrath, et al. (2011). "Chromatin modification acts as a memory for systemic acquired resistance in the plant stress response." EMBO Rep 12(1): 50-55. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21132017.

Jones-Rhoades, M. W. and D. P. Bartel (2004). "Computational identification of plant microRNAs and their targets, including a stress-induced miRNA." Mol Cell 14(6): 787-799. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15200956.

Josefsson, C., B. Dilkes, et al. (2006). "Parent-dependent loss of gene silencing during interspecies hybridization." Curr Biol 16(13): 1322-1328. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16824920.

Kaneda, A., K. Matsusaka, et al. (2012). "Epstein-Barr virus infection as an epigenetic driver of tumorigenesis." Cancer Res 72(14): 3445-3450. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22761333.

Karan, R., T. Deleon, et al. (2012). "Salt stress induced variation in DNA methylation pattern and its influence on gene expression in contrasting rice genotypes." PLoS One 7(6): e40203. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22761959.

Kenan-Eichler, M., D. Leshkowitz, et al. (2011). "Wheat Hybridization and Polyploidization Results in Deregulation of Small RNAs." Genetics 188(2): 263-272. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21467573.

Koturbash, I., M. Baker, et al. (2006). "Epigenetic dysregulation underlies radiation-induced transgenerational genome instability in vivo." Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 66(2): 327-330. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16965987.

Krizova, K., M. Fojtova, et al. (2009). "Cell culture-induced gradual and frequent epigenetic reprogramming of invertedly repeated tobacco transgene epialleles." Plant Physiol 149(3): 1493-1504. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19129419.

Lang-Mladek, C., O. Popova, et al. (2010). "Transgenerational inheritance and resetting of stress-induced loss of epigenetic gene silencing in Arabidopsis." Mol Plant 3(3): 594-602. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20410255.

Liu, Z., Y. Wang, et al. (2004). "Extensive alterations in DNA methylation and transcription in rice caused by introgression from Zizania latifolia." Plant Mol Biol 54(4): 571-582. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15316290.

Lukens, L. N., J. C. Pires, et al. (2006). "Patterns of sequence loss and cytosine methylation within a population of newly resynthesized Brassica napus allopolyploids." Plant Physiol 140(1): 336-348. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16377753.

Lukens, L. N. and S. Zhan (2007). "The plant genome's methylation status and response to stress: implications for plant improvement." Curr Opin Plant Biol 10(3): 317-322. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17468039.

Madlung, A. and L. Comai (2004). "The effect of stress on genome regulation and structure." Ann Bot (Lond) 94(4): 481-495. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15319229.

Madlung, A., R. W. Masuelli, et al. (2002). "Remodeling of DNA methylation and phenotypic and transcriptional changes in synthetic Arabidopsis allotetraploids." Plant Physiol 129(2): 733-746. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12068115.

Maekita, T., K. Nakazawa, et al. (2006). "High levels of aberrant DNA methylation in Helicobacter pylori-infected gastric mucosae and its possible association with gastric cancer risk." Clin Cancer Res 12(3 Pt 1): 989-995. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16467114.

Manikkam, M., C. Guerrero-Bosagna, et al. (2012). "Transgenerational actions of environmental compounds on reproductive disease and identification of epigenetic biomarkers of ancestral exposures." PLoS One 7(2): e31901. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22389676.

Marfil, C. F., E. L. Camadro, et al. (2009). "Phenotypic instability and epigenetic variability in a diploid potato of hybrid origin, Solanum ruiz-lealii." BMC Plant Biol 9: 21. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19232108.

Minarovits, J. (2009). "Microbe-induced epigenetic alterations in host cells: the coming era of patho-epigenetics of microbial infections. A review." Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung 56(1): 1-19. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19388554.

Moriichi, K., J. Watari, et al. (2009). "Effects of Helicobacter pylori infection on genetic instability, the aberrant CpG island methylation status and the cellular phenotype in Barrett's esophagus in a Japanese population." Int J Cancer 124(6): 1263-1269. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19048617.

Nakajima, T., S. Yamashita, et al. (2009). "The presence of a methylation fingerprint of Helicobacter pylori infection in human gastric mucosae." Int J Cancer 124(4): 905-910. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19035455.

Nardone, G. and D. Compare (2008). "Epigenetic alterations due to diet and Helicobacter pylori infection in gastric carcinogenesis." Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 2(2): 243-248. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19072359.

Nardone, G., D. Compare, et al. (2007). "Helicobacter pylori and epigenetic mechanisms underlying gastric carcinogenesis." Dig Dis Sci 25(3): 225-229. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17827945.

Negri, I., A. Franchini, et al. (2009). "Unravelling the Wolbachia evolutionary role: the reprogramming of the host genomic imprinting." Proc Biol Sci 276(1666): 2485-2491. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19364731.

Ngezahayo, F., C. Xu, et al. (2009). "Tissue culture-induced transpositional activity of mPing is correlated with cytosine methylation in rice." BMC Plant Biol 9: 91. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19604382.

Nilsson, E., G. Larsen, et al. (2012). "Environmentally induced epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of ovarian disease." PLoS One 7(5): e36129. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22570695.

Nilsson, E. E., M. D. Anway, et al. (2008). "Transgenerational epigenetic effects of the endocrine disruptor vinclozolin on pregnancies and female adult onset disease." Reproduction 135(5): 713-721. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18304984.

O'Neill, R. J., M. J. O'Neill, et al. (1998). "Undermethylation associated with retroelement activation and chromosome remodelling in an interspecific mammalian hybrid." Nature 393(6680): 68-72. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9590690.

Ou, X., L. Long, et al. (2009). "Spaceflight induces both transient and heritable alterations in DNA methylation and gene expression in rice (Oryza sativa L.)." Mutat Res 662(1-2): 44-53. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19135069.

Ou, X., Y. Zhang, et al. (2012). "Transgenerational Inheritance of Modified DNA Methylation Patterns and Enhanced Tolerance Induced by Heavy Metal Stress in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)." PLoS One 7(9): e41143. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22984395.

Qi, B., W. Huang, et al. (2012). "Global transgenerational gene expression dynamics in two newly synthesized allohexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum) lines." BMC Biol 10: 3. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22277161.

Rahavi, M. R., Z. Migicovsky, et al. (2011). "Transgenerational adaptation to heavy metal salts in Arabidopsis." Front Plant Sci 2: 91. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22639617.

Rasmann, S., M. De Vos, et al. (2012). "Herbivory in the previous generation primes plants for enhanced insect resistance." Plant Physiol 158(2): 854-863. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22209873.

Rechavi, O., G. Minevich, et al. (2011). "Transgenerational inheritance of an acquired small RNA-based antiviral response in C. elegans." Cell 147(6): 1248-1256. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22119442.

Salmon, A., M. L. Ainouche, et al. (2005). "Genetic and epigenetic consequences of recent hybridization and polyploidy in Spartina (Poaceae)." Mol Ecol 14(4): 1163-1175. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15773943.

Schmitt, F., E. J. Oakeley, et al. (1997). "Antibiotics induce genome-wide hypermethylation in cultured Nicotiana tabacum plants." J Biol Chem 272(3): 1534-1540. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8999825.

Schutt, S., A. R. Florl, et al. (2003). "DNA methylation in placentas of interspecies mouse hybrids." Genetics 165(1): 223-228. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14504229.

Sharma, A. and P. Singh (2009). "Detection of transgenerational spermatogenic inheritance of adult male acquired CNS gene expression characteristics using a Drosophila systems model." PLoS One 4(6): e5763. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19503609.

Skinner, M. K., M. D. Anway, et al. (2008). "Transgenerational epigenetic programming of the brain transcriptome and anxiety behavior." PLoS One 3(11): e3745. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19015723.

Tanurdzic, M., M. W. Vaughn, et al. (2008). "Epigenomic consequences of immortalized plant cell suspension culture." PLoS Biol 6(12): 2880-2895. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19071958.

Verhoeven, K. J., J. J. Jansen, et al. (2010). "Stress-induced DNA methylation changes and their heritability in asexual dandelions." New Phytol 185(4): 1108-1118. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20003072.

Verhoeven, K. J. and T. P. van Gurp (2012). "Transgenerational effects of stress exposure on offspring phenotypes in apomictic dandelion." PLoS One 7(6): e38605. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22723869.

Vrana, P. B., X. J. Guan, et al. (1998). "Genomic imprinting is disrupted in interspecific Peromyscus hybrids." Nat Genet 20(4): 362-365. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9843208.

Wang, H., Y. Chai, et al. (2009). "Molecular characterization of a rice mutator-phenotype derived from an incompatible cross-pollination reveals transgenerational mobilization of multiple transposable elements and extensive epigenetic instability." BMC Plant Biol 9: 63. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19476655.

Waterland, R. A. and R. L. Jirtle (2003). "Transposable elements: targets for early nutritional effects on epigenetic gene regulation." Mol Cell Biol 23(15): 5293-5300. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12861015.

Yaakov, B. and K. Kashkush (2011). "Massive alterations of the methylation patterns around DNA transposons in the first four generations of a newly formed wheat allohexaploid." Genome 54(1): 42-49. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21217805.

Yaakov, B. and K. Kashkush (2011). "Methylation, transcription, and rearrangements of transposable elements in synthetic allopolyploids." Int J Plant Genomics 2011: 569826. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21760771.

Yamamoto, E., M. Toyota, et al. (2008). "LINE-1 hypomethylation is associated with increased CpG island methylation in Helicobacter pylori-related enlarged-fold gastritis." Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 17(10): 2555-2564. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18842996.

Yauk, C., A. Polyzos, et al. (2008). "Germ-line mutations, DNA damage, and global hypermethylation in mice exposed to particulate air pollution in an urban/industrial location." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105(2): 605-610. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18195365.

Yoshida, T., S. Yamashita, et al. (2011). "Alu and Satalpha hypomethylation in Helicobacter pylori-infected gastric mucosae." Int J Cancer 128(1): 33-39. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20602342.