Table 2. Genomic consequences of experimental interspecific hybridization in plants and animals (Parisod et al., 2010a)

Genome Effect


Plants and Lower Eukaryotes


Alteration of epigenetic modifications to the genome

(Wang et al., 2013; Greaves et al., 2014; Greaves et al., 2015) (Shaked et al., 2001; Comai et al., 2003; Hegarty et al., 2006; Josefsson et al., 2006; Hegarty et al., 2008; Buggs et al., 2009a; Jones & Hegarty, 2009; Buggs et al., 2011) (Salmon et al., 2005; Josefsson et al., 2006; Nasrallah et al., 2007; Marfil et al., 2009; Martienssen, 2010; Parisod et al., 2010b; Groszmann et al., 2011; Hegarty et al., 2011; Moghaddam et al., 2011; Sanei et al., 2011; Greaves et al., 2012; Shivaprasad et al., 2012; Cara et al., 2013; He et al., 2013; Zhang et al., 2013; Sehrish et al., 2014; Senerchia et al., 2015; Senerchia et al., 2016; Ding & Chen, 2018).

(O'Neill et al., 1998; Vrana et al., 1998; Vrana et al., 2000; Schutt et al., 2003; Brown et al., 2008; Wiley et al., 2008; Brown et al., 2012; Kelleher et al., 2012; Xiao et al., 2013; Bamberger et al., 2018)

Alterations in expression patterns across the genome (“transcription shock”)

(Comai et al., 2000; Kunz et al., 2003; Hegarty et al., 2006; Josefsson et al., 2006; Albertin et al., 2007; Hegarty et al., 2008, 2009; Chelaifa et al., 2010; Buggs et al., 2011; Shivaprasad et al., 2012; He et al., 2013; Zhang et al., 2016)

(Hill-Burns & Clark, 2010; Renaut & Bernatchez, 2011; Wolf et al., 2014) (L'Hote et al., 2008; Czypionka et al., 2012; Kelleher et al., 2012; Erwin et al., 2015; Lopez-Maestre et al., 2017; Bamberger et al., 2018)

Activation and spread of mobile DNA elements

(Grandbastien et al., 2005; Madlung et al., 2005; Michalak, 2010; Parisod et al., 2010a) (Fontdevila, 2005; Michalak, 2009, 2010; Vela et al., 2014) (Ungerer et al., 2006; Ungerer et al., 2009; Kawakami et al., 2010; Kraitshtein et al., 2010; Scascitelli et al., 2010; Wang et al., 2010a; Wang et al., 2010b; Yaakov & Kashkush, 2011a, b, 2012; Ungerer & Kawakami, 2013; Yaakov et al., 2013; Zhang et al., 2013; Mixao & Gabaldon, 2017; Smukowski Heil et al., 2021) (Tayale & Parisod, 2013; Hénault et al., 2020)

(Fawcett et al., 1986; Yannopoulos et al., 1987; Bucheton, 1990; Scheinker et al., 1990; Petrov et al., 1995; Garcia Guerreiro, 1996; O'Neill et al., 1998; Labrador et al., 1999; Brown et al., 2012; Arkhipova & Rodriguez, 2013; Carnelossi et al., 2014; Guerreiro, 2014; Vela et al., 2014; Marburger et al., 2018)

Genome restructuring involving mobile DNA elements

(Ungerer et al., 2006; Parisod et al., 2009; Bento et al., 2013; Senerchia et al., 2015)

(Kidwell et al., 1977; Kidwell, 1985; Fawcett et al., 1986; Bucheton, 1990; Petrov et al., 1995; O'Neill et al., 1998; Vela et al., 2014; Romero-Soriano et al., 2016)

Changes in chromosome structure and karyotype

(Han et al., 2003; Lai et al., 2005; Madlung et al., 2005; Marfil et al., 2006; Li & Ge, 2007; Lim et al., 2008; Gao et al., 2010; Xie et al., 2010; Chester et al., 2012; Nicolas et al., 2012; Li et al., 2016; Danilova et al., 2017; Silkova et al., 2021; Wang et al., 2021; Zhao et al., 2021)

(Brown et al., 2002; Sakai et al., 2007; Ivanitskaya et al., 2010; Qin et al., 2014; Qin et al., 2016; Lo Bianco et al., 2017) (Deon et al., 2020) (Franchini et al., 2020); (Smalec et al., 2019)


Alteration of tandem repetitive DNA arrays and centromeres

(Guo et al., 2016)

(Metcalfe et al., 2007; Baicharoen et al., 2014)

Homeologous exchanges

(Wu et al., 2021)


Changes in ploidy (mostly whole genome duplications)

(Soltis et al., 2003; Baack et al., 2005; Hegarty et al., 2006; Hegarty & Hiscock, 2007; Doyle et al., 2008; Buggs et al., 2009b; Paun et al., 2009; Soltis, 2009; Muhlhausen & Kollmar, 2013; Tayale & Parisod, 2013; Alix et al., 2017; Fisher et al., 2018)

(Liu et al., 2007; Liu, 2010; Brieuc et al., 2014; Kodama et al., 2014; Nossa et al., 2014; Li et al., 2015; Marburger et al., 2018; Rodriguez & Arkhipova, 2018; Novikova et al., 2020)



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