Exon Rearrangements and Retroposition by Mobile DNA element Activity



Group II intron retrotransposition and exon shuffling in yeast

(Hiller, Hetzer et al. 2000)

Chimeric LINE-mediated retrogene in rice blast fungus Magnaporthe grisea

(Gogvadze, Barbisan et al. 2007)

DNA “splicing” by transposase-related excision functions in ciliated protists

(Chen, Jung et al. 2015)

Exon shuffling by DNA transposons in plants (Pack-MULEs, etc.)

(Jiang, Bao et al. 2004; Lisch 2005; Dooner and Weil 2007; Jiang, Ferguson et al. 2011)

LINE 1-mediated duplications in dicots

(Zhu, Tan et al. 2016)

CACTA transposon-mobilized exon in beans

(Zabala and Vodkin 2007)

Helitron-mediated exon shuffling in maize

(Lai, Li et al. 2005; Morgante, Brunner et al. 2005)

Chimeric coding loci mediated by Ac/Ds transposons in maize

(Zhang, Zhang et al. 2006; Wang, Yu et al. 2015)

Retrotransposon-mediated exon shuffling in maize

(Elrouby and Bureau 2010)

Retrotransposon-mediated exon shuffling in Medicago sativa

(Vegh, Vincze et al. 1990)

Helitron-mediated exon shuffling in Lepidoptera

(Coates, Hellmich et al. 2012)

FB transposon-mediated exon shuffling in Drosophila

(Moschetti, Marsano et al. 2004)

Retrotransduction by non-LTR retrotransposons (LINEs and SINEs) in Drosophila

(Betrán, Thornton et al. 2002)


Exon shuffling by retrotransposition in mammals

(Dupuy, Duperat et al. 2002; Ding, Lin et al. 2006)

Retrotransposon exon shuffling in primates

(Xing, Wang et al. 2006)

TRIM5-Cyclophilin A (TRIMCyp) fusion by retrotransposition in tree shrews and owl monkeys

(Sayah, Sokolskaja et al. 2004; Zhang, Zhang et al. 2006)

Exon shuffling by retrotransposition in humans

(Ohshima and Igarashi 2010)

Retrotransposed copies in the human genome

(Ohshima, Hattori et al. 2003; Marques, Dupanloup et al. 2005; Vinckenbosch, Dupanloup et al. 2006)

L1/LINE mediated retrotransduction in humans

(Esnault, Maestre et al. 2000; Ejima and Yang 2003)

Alu SINE mediated retrotransduction in humans

(Volff and Brosius 2007; Hancks, Ewing et al. 2009; Farre, Engel et al. 2016)

SVA SINE mediated retrotransduction in humans

(Taniguchi-Ikeda, Kobayashi et al. 2011)

SVA SINE fusion with exon in humans

(Bantysh and Buzdin 2009)

Human genome chimeric “retrogenes,” by LINE-mediated template switches at the RNA level

(Buzdin, Gogvadze et al. 2003; Buzdin 2004; Buzdin, Gogvadze et al. 2007)

Chimeric human retrotransposon

(Bantysh and Buzdin 2009)








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