Molecular Mechanisms Of Natural Genetic Engineering

(Hedges and Batzer 2005; Kelman and White 2005; Postberg, Heyse et al. 2008; Selmecki, Forche et al. 2010; Deem, Keszthelyi et al. 2011; Levin and Moran 2011)

DNA uptake from the environment

(Davey, Rech et al. 1989; Dubnau 1999; MacFadyen, Chen et al. 2001; Chen 2004; Meibom, Blokesch et al. 2005; Claverys, Prudhomme et al. 2006; Redfield, Findlay et al. 2006; Johnsen, Dubnau et al. 2009; Kovacs, Smits et al. 2009; Maughan and Redfield 2009; Weber-Lotfi, Ibrahim et al. 2009)

Sperm-mediated DNA transfer: (Gandolfi 1998; Chang, Qian et al. 2002; Smith and Spadafora 2005; Yanagimachi 2005; Lavitrano, Busnelli et al. 2006; Spadafora 2007; Navarro, Risco et al. 2008; Spadafora 2008; Garcia-Vazquez, Ruiz et al. 2010)

Intercellular DNA transfer

(Wolff, Malone et al. 1990; Heinemann and Sprague 1991; Sprague 1991; Wang, Goodman et al. 2002; Pappas and Winans 2003; Chung, Vaidya et al. 2006; Rocco and Churchward 2006; Simoes-Barbosa, Arganaraz et al. 2006; Richardson and Palmer 2007; Tsai, Huang et al. 2008; Lai and Lin 2009; Gillespie, Brayton et al. 2010; Hayes, Aoki et al. 2010; Hecht, Nitz et al. 2010; Snir and Trifonov 2010; Zhu and Mahato 2010; Ananiadou, Sullivan et al. 2011; Anderson and Seifert 2011; Babic, Berkmen et al. 2011; Fernandez-Gonzalez, de Paz et al. 2011; Ghinet, Bordeleau et al. 2011; Schroder, Schuelein et al. 2011)

Table III.1. Examples of intercellular and interkingdom DNA transfer

Horizontal transfer mode

Documented transfers

Uptake of environmental and liposomal DNA

Bacteria – bacteria: (Averhoff and Friedrich 2003; Claverys, Prudhomme et al. 2006; Averhoff 2009)

Archaea-archaea: (Bertani and Baresi 1987; Worrell, Nagle et al. 1988); (Cline, Schalkwyk et al. 1989; Patel, Nash et al. 1994; Metcalf, Zhang et al. 1997; Soppa 2006; Almeida, Leszczyniecka et al. 2008; Berkner and Lipps 2008; Soppa, Baumann et al. 2008)

Algal transfection: (Walker, Purton et al. 2005).

Plant – bacteria: (Kay, Vogel et al. 2002; de Vries, Herzfeld et al. 2004)

Plastid transfection: (O'Neill, Horvath et al. 1993)

Mammalian cell transfection: (Wolff and Budker 2005; Khalil, Kogure et al. 2006; Kim and Eberwine 2010) and lipofection: (Felgner 1987; Zuhorn, Kalicharan et al. 2002)

Plant protoplasts: (Potrykus 1990; Davey, Anthony et al. 2005)

Conjugal transfer

Bacteria – bacteria: (Hayes 1968)

Archaea – archaea: (Prangishvili, Albers et al. 1998)

Bacteria – archaea: (Dodsworth, Li et al. 2010)

Bacteria – yeast: (Heinemann and Sprague 1989; Heinemann and Sprague 1991)

Bacteria – plant: (Chilton 1983; Winans 1992; Broothaerts, Mitchell et al. 2005)

Bacteria – animal: (Schroder, Schuelein et al. 2011)

Viral transduction and GTAs (gene transfer agents)

 

Bacteria – bacteria: (Stanton 2007; McDaniel, Young et al. 2010)

Archaea-archaea: (Meile, Abendschein et al. 1990; Bertani 1999); (Zillig, Prangishvilli et al. 1996; Eiserling, Pushkin et al. 1999; Prangishvili 2003; Snyder, Stedman et al. 2003; Prangishvili and Garrett 2005; Prangishvili, Forterre et al. 2006; Prangishvili, Garrett et al. 2006)

Bacteria – plant: (Chung, Vaidya et al. 2006)

Animal cell – animal cell: (El-Aneed 2004)

Animal cell – virus: (Filee, Pouget et al. 2008)

direct fusion of cells or protoplasts that lack a rigid outer covering.

Bacteria-bacteria: (Schaeffer, Cami et al. 1976; Hopwood, Wright et al. 1977; Patnaik, Louie et al. 2002; Dai, Ziesman et al. 2005)

Mammal-mammal: (Ramos, Bonenfant et al. 2002; Trontelj, Usaj et al. 2010; Yamanaka and Blau 2010)

Plant-plant: (Gamborg and Holl 1977; Binding, Krumbiegel-Schroeren et al. 1986; Nehls, Krumbiegel-Schroeren et al. 1986; Potrykus 1990; Fahleson and Glimelius 1999; Davey, Anthony et al. 2005; Poma, Limongi et al. 2006; Savitha, Sadhasivam et al. 2010)

Parasitic or endosymbiotic association

Plant – fern: (Davis, Anderson et al. 2005)

Plant – plant: (Davis and Wurdack 2004) (Mower, Stefanovic et al. 2004)

Bacteria – invertebrate: (Hotopp, Clark et al. 2007; Nikoh, Tanaka et al. 2008; Nikoh and Nakabachi 2009)

Undetermined mechanism

Archaea – bacteria: (Koonin, Makarova et al. 2001)

Bacteria – fungus: (Belbahri, Calmin et al. 2008)

Bacteria – protist: (Huang, Mullapudi et al. 2004; Stechmann, Baumgartner et al. 2006; Whitaker, McConkey et al. 2009)

Archaea – protist: (Andersson, Sarchfield et al. 2005; Huang, Xu et al. 2005)

Protist – protist: (Andersson 2005;