[ James A. Shapiro ] James A. Shapiro

Antigenic Variation

(Plasterk, Simon et al. 1985; Wilske, Barbour et al. 1992; Borst, Rudenko et al. 1996; Zhang and Norris 1998; Barbour and Restrepo 2000; Howell-Adams and Seifert 2000; Barry and McCulloch 2001; Brayton, Palmer et al. 2002; Donelson 2003; Centurion-Lara, LaFond et al. 2004; Horn 2004; van der Woude and Baumler 2004; Al-Khedery and Allred 2006; Barbour, Dai et al. 2006; Palmer, Futse et al. 2006; Bankhead and Chaconas 2007; Marcello and Barry 2007; Palmer and Brayton 2007; Stringer 2007; Scherf, Lopez-Rubio et al. 2008; Stockdale, Swiderski et al. 2008; Wisniewski-Dye and Vial 2008; Alsford, Horn et al. 2009; Cahoon and Seifert 2009; Coutte, Botkin et al. 2009; Deitsch, Lukehart et al. 2009; Dzikowski and Deitsch 2009; Palmer, Bankhead et al. 2009)




Al-Khedery, B. and D. R. Allred (2006). "Antigenic variation in Babesia bovis occurs through segmental gene conversion of  the ves multigene family, within a bidirectional locus of active transcription." Mol Microbiol 59(2): 402-414. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16390438.

Alsford, S., D. Horn, et al. (2009). "DNA breaks as triggers for antigenic variation in African trypanosomes." Genome Biol 10(6): 223. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19519956.

Bankhead, T. and G. Chaconas (2007). "The role of VlsE antigenic variation in the Lyme disease spirochete: persistence through a mechanism that differs from other pathogens." Mol Microbiol 65(6): 1547-1558. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17714442.

Barbour, A. G., Q. Dai, et al. (2006). "Pathogen escape from host immunity by a genome program for antigenic variation." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103(48): 18290-18295. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17101971.

Barbour, A. G. and B. I. Restrepo (2000). "Antigenic variation in vector-borne pathogens." Emerg Infect Dis 6(5): 449-457. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10998374.

Barry, J. D. and R. McCulloch (2001). "Antigenic variation in trypanosomes: enhanced phenotypic variation in a eukaryotic parasite." Adv Parasitol 49: 1-70. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11461029.

Borst, P., G. Rudenko, et al. (1996). "Antigenic variation in trypanosomes." Arch Med Res 27(3): 379-388. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8854399.

Brayton, K. A., G. H. Palmer, et al. (2002). "Antigenic variation of Anaplasma marginale msp2 occurs by combinatorial gene conversion." Mol Microbiol 43(5): 1151-1159. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11918803.

Cahoon, L. A. and H. S. Seifert (2009). "An alternative DNA structure is necessary for pilin antigenic variation in Neisseria gonorrhoeae." Science 325(5941): 764-767. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19661435.

Centurion-Lara, A., R. E. LaFond, et al. (2004). "Gene conversion: a mechanism for generation of heterogeneity in the tprK gene of Treponema pallidum during infection." Mol Microbiol 52(6): 1579-1596. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15186410.

Coutte, L., D. J. Botkin, et al. (2009). "Detailed analysis of sequence changes occurring during vlsE antigenic variation in the mouse model of Borrelia burgdorferi infection." PLoS Pathog 5(2): e1000293. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19214205.

Deitsch, K. W., S. A. Lukehart, et al. (2009). "Common strategies for antigenic variation by bacterial, fungal and protozoan pathogens." Nat Rev Microbiol 7(7): 493-503. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19503065.

Donelson, J. E. (2003). "Antigenic variation and the African trypanosome genome." Acta Trop 85(3): 391-404. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12659976.

Dzikowski, R. and K. W. Deitsch (2009). "Genetics of antigenic variation in Plasmodium falciparum." Curr Genet 55(2): 103-110. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19242694.

Horn, D. (2004). "The molecular control of antigenic variation in Trypanosoma brucei." Curr Mol Med 4(6): 563-576. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15357208.

Howell-Adams, B. and H. S. Seifert (2000). "Molecular models accounting for the gene conversion reactions mediating gonococcal pilin antigenic variation." Mol Microbiol 37(5): 1146-1158. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10972832.

Marcello, L. and J. D. Barry (2007). "Analysis of the VSG gene silent archive in Trypanosoma brucei reveals that mosaic gene expression is prominent in antigenic variation and is favored by archive substructure." Genome Res 17(9): 1344-1352. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17652423.

Palmer, G. H., T. Bankhead, et al. (2009). "'Nothing is permanent but change'- antigenic variation in persistent bacterial pathogens." Cell Microbiol 11(12): 1697-1705. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19709057.

Palmer, G. H. and K. A. Brayton (2007). "Gene conversion is a convergent strategy for pathogen antigenic variation." Trends Parasitol 23(9): 408-413. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17662656.

Palmer, G. H., J. E. Futse, et al. (2006). "Insights into mechanisms of bacterial antigenic variation derived from the complete genome sequence of Anaplasma marginale." Ann N Y Acad Sci 1078: 15-25. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17114676.

Plasterk, R. H., M. I. Simon, et al. (1985). "Transposition of structural genes to an expression sequence on a linear plasmid causes antigenic variation in the bacterium Borrelia hermsii." Nature 318(6043): 257-263. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4069202.

Scherf, A., J. J. Lopez-Rubio, et al. (2008). "Antigenic variation in Plasmodium falciparum." Annu Rev Microbiol 62: 445-470. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18785843.

Stockdale, C., M. R. Swiderski, et al. (2008). "Antigenic variation in Trypanosoma brucei: joining the DOTs." PLoS Biol 6(7): e185. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18666832.

Stringer, J. R. (2007). "Antigenic variation in pneumocystis." J Eukaryot Microbiol 54(1): 8-13. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17300510.

van der Woude, M. W. and A. J. Baumler (2004). "Phase and antigenic variation in bacteria." Clin Microbiol Rev 17(3): 581-611. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15258095.

Wilske, B., A. G. Barbour, et al. (1992). "Antigenic variation and strain heterogeneity in Borrelia spp." Res Microbiol 143(6): 583-596. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1475519.

Wisniewski-Dye, F. and L. Vial (2008). "Phase and antigenic variation mediated by genome modifications." Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 94(4): 493-515. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18663597.

Zhang, J. R. and S. J. Norris (1998). "Genetic variation of the Borrelia burgdorferi gene vlsE involves cassette-specific, segmental gene conversion." Infect Immun 66(8): 3698-3704. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9673251.